A mainstream of students like to have a part time job, which they can enjoy and that does not put extra burden on them. A good part time job adds additional skills in you. By doing a part time job, you are learning new skills by getting a new experience. Many students want to use their part time job for increasing the worth of their degree for this purpose they also seek different types of online dissertation writer. However, finding a part time job that satisfies your instinct to learn and increase the value of your degree is not easy. Here you can find different ways how you can find a good part time job that complements your degree and passion both.
Find a Part time Job Related to Your Degree
Finding a part time job which concerns your degree can benefit you in the best way. Let’s say if you are studying library science, you can get a part time job in a community library. If you are studying medicine, you can get a job of anatomy demonstrator. You can also do teaching stuff to junior medical students. The task will not be so difficult and you will be earning good. Similarly, regardless of your subject, you can still give tuition that will help you recall what you have studied so far and help you remember it.
Use Your Skills to Do What You Love
You can also use your skills to take a part time job. Such as if you are good at graphic designing, then you can take a part time in a jewelry company where jewelry fashion designers are required to design the jewelry. Don’t worry; it is not like you are asking someone to do my assignment. On the contrary, such job experience helps you learn new skills, plus you get good pay. Similarly, if you possess other skills such as writing, then you can write articles for magazine as a part time job. If you think that you are a good swimmer then you can be hired as a swimming instructor as a part time job.
Use Your Hobby to Do a Part Time
Getting your hobby cashed is the best idea. If you are good at cooking, you can join a restaurant as a part time. If you love gardening and good at maintaining the garden, don’t worry, a thousand of part time job vacancies are available. Even an animal lover is alone. If you love animals such as cats and dogs, you can babysit pets or take them to walk. If you love children and like taking care of them, you can be a babysitter as well. The options are endless. It is up to you what you choose for yourself. The most important point is that you should have a good time while doing part time but don’t forget a handsome amount.
We all accept that Americans or European/British, both the nations take after the instructive society, which is rich in intellectualism, scholastic opportunity, quality training, and offer incredible examination offices. Moreover, evidence could be taken from the idea that among World's 200 biggest colleges, half are found either in the America or in British.
In spite of the fact that both the nations give an improving instruction encounter yet there are some fundamental contrasts between the college structure and life of understudies in America vs. British. The assignments written by the students and on display on the web are mostly result of the thesis writing services so it is better to look for some other areas to understand which one of these nations have better universities.
Structure of Universities
In British the greater part of the universities is fusion of "colleges or high school" that offers particular system based on subjects. Despite the fact that the college administers the schools however they are independent bodies and direct their system according to the college powers. In British, you can put a direct application to the college that you desire.
While in America, cannot put an application directly to the college but have to apply through a central university moreover, in the beginning years, you have to study all or multiple courses regardless of the majors you will choose. This helps you in choosing better subjects for your finals. It is just like plenty of choices provided by the custom dissertation writer and then enjoy the most favorable one.
The British educational framework does not have numerous assignments to be done. In a portion of the courses, the whole review is needy upon your execution in the last test of the year. Then again, in America, you will be required to do bunch of assignments, which would further include composing ventures, oral presentations, research papers and so forth all through the course. And your evaluation will rely on how you play out your assignments and the end of the year test comes about.
Range of time to complete your degree is the most significant contrast between the study in America and British. In America, the degree programs for the most part takes one more year as compared to the projects in the British however, this relies on the degrees in which you are interested.
In both the nations, an applicant can specifically select for a PhD program after the college degree. In British, a typical practice is accessed and after that look forward to PhD. On the off chance that you think about American Degree Vs British Degrees, British degrees are more focused than in the America.
Calendar of the Academia
The calendars in the academia of these nations keep changing as per the climatic change and other valuable aspects. Similarly, in bath the nations the universities utilize the semester framework, the trimester frameworks, and the quarter frameworks. The vast majority of the Colleges and universities in British begins in September or October and recover from by May or June and this makes them acquire a more drawn out educational year.
While in America, the greater part of the colleges or universes begins in mid to end of August and afterward enjoy holidays in the mid of December and afterward the second semester begins in January. There are a few colleges where the winter break begins toward the end of November.
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As defined by the McGuire & Dowling (2013), technology enabled crimes are one of the traditional types of the crime, which are executed by using the computers, networks and other types of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Unlike the crimes committed via cyber communication, these can be executed without involving the incentives of ICT. The two most commonly known forms of technology enabled crimes are fraud and theft (McGuire & Dowling, 2013). Few major technology-oriented frauds involve electronic financial frauds, counterfeit sales via online sites, mass-marketing consumer scams, phishing scams and so forth. Such crimes are committed with an intention of personal or financial data attainment. The data gained includes personal information, company accounts, intellectual property and customers’ data base and so on (Rezaee & Riley, 2009). In these cases, the victims are the business associates or general public. This report aims to comprehend the idea behind frauds in the light of technology.
Exploitation of technology, cyber-crimes, technology enabled crimes, thefts and frauds, technology based financial frauds, frauds and scams
Integration of modern technology for the convenience of business ventures or other services has emerged with the rise in criminal behaviour executed by disguising the exact location and identity of the person involved in the scam (Subramanian, 2014). It is to be mentioned that these services are absolutely legal and are used legitimately for certain purposes by billions of user every day. Like other services, technology based services are also being misused by many having illegal intentions. However, these services enable the thieves to address their target anywhere in the world (Samociuk & Iyer, 2012). There are various forms of the technology enabled frauds some commonly executed ones are:
Victims of Technology Enabled Frauds
As per the report presented by Skinner (2015), around 2/3 of internet users all over the globe are victims of technology enabled or cyber crime. Taking the statistics of “Norton Cybercrime Report: The Human Impact” into consideration, it states that 58% of victims of technology based frauds that also include credit and debit card frauds are reported every month. On the other side, 80% of the web consumers believe that perpetrators will never be prosecuted. Concurrently, the increasing number of incidents of these frauds has generated awareness to almost everyone with the terms of Phishing and pharming. As discussed above, phishing and pharming actually are the two most common forms of technology based frauds. These frauds scam the victims by ensuring authenticity of their sites and thus they believe data or personal details that are provided by them are secured. The most common cases involve the bank websites asking victim for details and then empty their bank accounts. Other certain ways involve popup one receives, for example virus detected, and provides a solution statement such as “What should you do when your computer gets infected with a virus? Do not worry; just follow the link”. Following such links take the user to bogus websites. Other most common victims of the technology based crimes are those, who use to download and update software or files. For example downloading movies, songs, and other files online or updating systems or software gives the technology based criminals access ones information or data.
Perpetrators of technology enabled frauds
There is a drastic difference between the white collar and violent criminal executing crimes of either high or low intensity. Perpetrators of these kinds of frauds are found to be of younger age with abundance of technical skills and knowledge. One proportion of the perpetrators is those, who are usually known as ‘hackers’ and are motivated to do such things because of the curiosity of how things work, gain more knowledge and to challenge security of systems. Their act is a part of a game rather than a severe crime (Computer Fraud and Abuse, 2015).
One more motivation for these criminals can be to make a strong position in the hacking community. These criminal considers themselves as the revolutionist, as they are spreading the message of freedom. However, the growing number of perpetrators has an intention of financial profit. In order to gain profits, these criminals sell the data and information hacked to further or severe cyber criminals such as spammers, intelligence community, and organised crime. Few fraud perpetrators are those who are unhappy with their jobs or annoyed by someone and aim to seek revenge against the company or the employee, or just want to make financial profits by cheating their company or co-workers.
Approaches to technological enabled fraud
According to the definition of technology enabled frauds presented by the U.S Department of Justice, it is an act that requires radical technology knowledge by committers, investigators and prosecutors (Gunasekaran, 2002). In such crimes, perpetrators can steal the victim’s data or any other information in no time. Although, there are very few evidences available of such crimes making it more difficult to track.
Technology enabled frauds cost billions of dollars every year, however, with a rapid increase many of the frauds are either not detected or those detected have not been reported (Shoniregun, 2005). It is believed that they cannot be encountered by the technology based frauds due to high security they use. On the contrary, certain networks offer lower standards of security. However, law enforcement is required to be kept up (Gunasekaran, 2002).
The law enforcement in over al world keeps on evolving with the time and demands. In technology enabled crimes the law enforcement, depend on the fraud type or abuse. According to the laws of United Kingdom the criminals of cyber fraud can now be sentenced for life time as per the amendments made in “Computer Misuse Act 1990” (SC Staff, 2015). The original bill of this Act, which was cited from a co-founder of SC, Steve Gold’s hack of Prince Phillip’s email, recognized the technology based hacking a ‘crime’. Thus, according to the recent amendment a person guilty for such crime would be put in prison if they commit “unauthorized act” if they are aware of it. This bill is also expected to prevent individuals from attaining tools such as malware, which is used with the purpose of committing a crime, and thus extend the court of UK’s extra defensive jurisdiction in order to let the prosecution of UK residents executing frauds, while they are actually outside the UK.
The changes within the laws are intended to guarantee that legislations are modified. It takes the criminals to justice and prevents the individual from committing such crimes. Thus, this mitigates the threat and impact of cyber crime. This bill will be further reviewed in 2020. According to the assessment made by the government, the new prosecutions are almost negligible as there were only two trials were made in England and Wales under the light of Computer misuse Act section 3A. Therefore, it was considered that the law will deal with serious technology enabled frauds and not the hackers of low level (Hall, 2015).
On the other side, a separate cyber-crime law was activated in Nigeria, according to which any cyber based fraud committed to disrupt the national infrastructure that causes severe damages will be prosecuted to death by hanging. More general form of the technology oriented crime punishments in Nigeria is 7 years sentence or penalty of £16,000 and both for those guilty for purposefully circulating fake information that might threaten the country’s security or those provoking the general public against the governments by means of electronic messages (SC Staff, 2015).
Effectiveness of Responses To-Date
The Computer Misuse Act in term of effectiveness is found highly useful as it ensures that people and their information is kept safe from fraudulent or scammers. However, it is difficult to track the person or gang involved in such frauds because of the massive size of the internet. For example, if someone is found guilty for hacking any one’s computer and steal or alter information than they would be sentenced accordingly. However, it is difficult to trace them as the criminal might not be using their own IP address. Although, if one is trying to access data without having legislative authorisation, then this would be hard to prove this act as a potential crime as it has not been executed yet. Thereby, it is expected by the government to implement plans that are able enough to reduce such activity of these activities. Every business suffers with great loss every year due to these frauds, which can be restrained by certain simple measures. Along with this, it will serve as a serious warning not to violate the laws set to secure cyber peace (Howard, 2009).
Future Policy Responses
As per the results found by the Spamhaus (2015), the international NGO, which looks upon the malicious activities of computer, UK hold the record of largest proportion of computer systems connected with the compromised internet network of any other country all over the globe. In such situations, these compromised systems might get encountered by number of infections or vulnerabilities. Hence, each of these vulnerabilities is seen under certain criteria of the Computer Misuse Act (Sood, 2001).
It is a fact that along with the time thousands of compromised machines all over the globe that indicates occurrence of new forms of technology enabled crimes. The constantly changing nature of the world wide networking and technology is destined to generate numerous more infections and vulnerabilities, which will definitely be exploited by the criminal community (Clarkson et al., 2010). As a result, legislation is required to keep an eye on the new threats emergence, or the probability of high financial incidents may occur. This deduces that the law enforcement does not stand in a place to react, therefore failing to launch public interest prosecution.
Besides the need of the changing legislation, IT security should be taken as the centre of attention rather than prosecution. Almost all the cases of cyber frauds, which are reported to the Metropolitan Police Computer Crime Unit, could have been avoided, if suitable procedures and policies were put in practice. However, keeping IT security sustainable involves government operations, ISPs, law and policy enforcers, apparatus manufacturers, and many more. In generally, the IT security awareness of people all around the globe is quite low (Miller, 2016).
Moreover, the partnership between government and industry is quite important if this issue is indented to be addressed. For example the ’Get Safe Online Campaign’ is an important example that depicts the success of such partnerships (Shinder & Cross, 2008). By raising awareness through awareness programs the trust issues relating to online trading can be developed. If the users are confident that they are suing a secure web network or the website is not bogus than the online transaction rate will definitely be increased.
Since numerous issues and limitations were found in the application of Computer Misuse Act, which raises the question on sentencing the criminals and hackers being deterred (Bologna & Shaw, 2000). This act particularly covers certain areas of technology based crimes according to the penetration or alteration to the data. The act defines the technology based crimes too broadly as it demonstrates as “unauthorised access to computer material” (Miller, 2016). The law was initiatively constructed with a purpose of ensuring enough scope, so the law would not become old with modification and adaption in technology. However, this illustrates that the Act can perform as a dull tool sometimes in defining computer crime.
The policy that government should have incorporated with Act is the IT security awareness and should ensure that there have been made settings that monitor and sustain such policies. This awareness involves ant-virus software and firewalls as well as ensures that their subscriptions are renewed timely. Keeping the systems up to date will result in great awareness and thus will keep the individual or the business settings compromised (Howard, 2009).
Moreover, with integration of the law enforcement and IT security awareness, one more policy that should be implemented to ensure the reduction of cyber crime is to place the location detectors within the processors of the system. These detectors should have direct contact with the Metropolitan Police Computer Crime Unit that tracks the location of all the processors activated without disturbing their operations. These detecting devices should be one of the built-in feature of the processors so that no one remove it.
The paper concludes that the technology based crimes are the most traditional types of crimes, which have been modifying with the time along with the emergence of new vulnerabilities. The paper successfully determines the two most common forms of cyber frauds such as mass-marketing consumer scams, pharming, phishing and the list goes on. The vicious of these crimes identified are either the general public a respective business venture. These people reportedly have been found encountered in frauds in which either the fake bank website emptied their accounts, or online retailer cheated them by not delivering the goods after the payment have been made. Moreover, the business ventures that undergo such scams involve the activities in which the data or other confidential information is theft by the criminals. The government of UK has established many laws such as ‘Computer Misuse Act’ which was considerably quite effective. As per this law, those accused for the cyber based fraud will be imprisonment for life time. However, if the government pays more attention on IT security awareness along with this act of prosecution, more than half of such cases can be resolved. Moreover, this paper suggested a policy to mitigate the technology based frauds, which is to program tracking device that can detect any unauthentic source trying to assess personal information or any other data.
Bologna, G.J. & Shaw, P., 2000. Avoiding Cyber Fraud in Small Businesses: What Auditors and Owners Need to Know. Wiley.
Clarkson, K.W., Miller, R.L. & Cross, F.B., 2010. Business Law: Text and Cases: Legal, Ethical, Global, and Corporate Environment. Cengage Learning.
Computer Fraud and Abuse, 2015. COMPUTER FRAUD AND ABUSE. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www4.semo.edu/gjohnson/AC330/ac330ch5notesedition11.htm" http://www4.semo.edu/gjohnson/AC330/ac330ch5notesedition11.htm [Accessed 1 Feburary 2016].
Gee, S., 2014. Fraud and Fraud Detection: A Data Analytics Approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Gunasekaran, A., 2002. Knowledge and Information Technology Management: Human and Social Perspectives: Human and Social Perspectives. Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Hall, J.A., 2015. Information Technology Auditing. Cengage Learning.
Howard, R., 2009. Cyber Fraud: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures. CRC Press.
Howard, R., 2009. Cyber Fraud: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures. CRC Press.
McGuire, M. & Dowling, S., 2013. Cyber crime: A review of the evidence Chapter 2: Cyber-enabled crimes - fraud and theft. Research Report 75. Home Office.
Miller, R.L., 2016. Business Law Today, Comprehensive. Cengage Learning.
Miller, R.L., 2016. Business Law Today, Standard: Text & Summarized Cases. Cengage Learning.
Rezaee, Z. & Riley, R., 2009. Financial Statement Fraud: Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons.
Samociuk, M.M. & Iyer, M.N., 2012. Fraud and Corruption: Prevention and Detection. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
SC Staff, 2015. New laws include life sentence and hanging for cyber-crime. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www.scmagazineuk.com/new-laws-include-life-sentence-and-hanging-for-cyber-crime/article/414907/" http://www.scmagazineuk.com/new-laws-include-life-sentence-and-hanging-for-cyber-crime/article/414907/ [Accessed 1 Feburary 2016].
Shinder, D.L. & Cross, M., 2008. Scene of the Cybercrime. Syngress.
Shoniregun, C.A., 2005. Impacts and Risk Assessment of Technology for Internet Security: Enabled Information Small-Medium Enterprises (TEISMES). Springer Science & Business Media.
Simpson, C., 2015. Review of computer misuse laws essential to keep up with rapidly developing market. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Review-of-computer-misuse-laws-essential-to-keep-up-with-rapidly-developing-market" http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Review-of-computer-misuse-laws-essential-to-keep-up-with-rapidly-developing-market [Accessed 1 Feburary 2016].
Skinner, C.-A., 2015. 65% of Web Users Are Victims of Cybercrime. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "http://www.pcworld.com/article/205309/65_percent_of_web_users_are_victims_of_cybercrime.html" http://www.pcworld.com/article/205309/65_percent_of_web_users_are_victims_of_cybercrime.html [Accessed 1 Feburary 2016].
Sood, V., 2001. Cyber Law Simplified. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Subramanian, R., 2014. Bank Fraud: Using Technology to Combat Losses. John Wiley & Sons.
The study indicates the gene expression profiling, in terms of microarrays by utilising the R program processing. This section of the research involves the methods and techniques that are used by the study for identifying the gene expression profiling in brown adipose tissue. This also includes the data analysis of the collected samples, and the procedures and apparatuses that are required and involved in the study. This part of the research would further indicate the statistical tools that have been applied through R programming in order to identify the pathway of gene that has been highly expressed in the microarrays that have been used in this study.
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene expression profiling contributes in measuring the activity or the expression in a literal manner of the extracted sample. In this study, the targeted samples are the Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) of a sheep that are being centred for the gene expression profiling technique. The method creates profiles for analysing a number of genes at once for initiating the representation of the cellular function and related activities. In general, such gene profiles indicate the differences between different cells or their reaction towards a particular condition. Experiments that are conducted in this domain help in measuring an entire genome concurrently for the required purpose (HC & AA., 2001).
- BAT Tissue Extraction from the Sheep Model
The selected model was used for obtaining biopsy for analysing the expression. The model allows inserting the monitoring and sampling devices for collecting the BAT tissue in order to analyse the DNA, RNA, and protein factors in gene expression. Sheep has been utilised in particular sectors of the biomedical research because of high strength the sheep has as an animal model. Then again, there are certain limitations as well for sheep as an animal model (Ojha et al., 2013).
DNA Microarray Technology
The biopsy obtained from the sheep model were analysed by DNA microarray. The conducted expressions were further processed in the oligonucleotide microarrays Affymetrix GeneChip. This technology helps in measuring the activity of the genes that have been identified. The technique of microarrays in this study helps in measuring the expression levels of the obtained genes. Every DNA spot in this context comprises of picomoles (10-12 moles), which is of a particular DNA sequence addressed as probes. This smaller sections of the gene are utilised in hybridising cDNA or cRNA sample that processed under high stringency situations. In terms of spotted microarrays, the probes used are the oligonucleotides, which have been utilised for the conducted study (Tarca et al., 2008).
This study has utilised the shorter sequences of having the 25-mer probes that have been formed through Affymetrix. In the Affymetrix technique, the method that has been utilised for producing the oligonucleotide arrays involves the photolithographic synthesis. The study has utilised the Affymetrix GeneChip in this regard to analyse the DNA Microarrays for immediately scanning the appearance of the specific genes that are present in the extracted biological sample. The study has been exacting in this area towards the oligonucleotide arrays of the Affymetrix GeneChip. These microarrays are utilised in this study for the gene expression profiling, for analysing the particular mRNA pieces. This research is using a single chip for observing the thousands of genes onto a single assay (Auer et al., 2009).
The GeneChip microarrays comprise of a distinctive characteristic of having the photochemical synthesis when it comes to their manufacturing. The manufacturing technology has provided with the ease of synthesising a million numbers of different probes, even more, on the presented array that is of a thumbnail size. This range of numbers allocates towards the inclusion of having multiple probes that are investigated in this study, and the targeted sequence that further relates to present the statistical course of interpreting the data.
- Investigating Gene Expression in Sheep BAT Tissues
The performed study has utilised the above-discussed Oligonucleotide microarrays Affymetrix GeneChip in order to analyse the gene expression profiling of the sheep BAT tissues. The GeneChip microarray is performed basing it on the present chemical attraction, which is between the DNA molecules. The process refers the strands matching to the complementary strands of the RNA. This depends on the basis being complementary, because if they are not, they will not fit together. The Affymetrix microarrays proceed depending on the basic principle of base pairing attraction, referring to the property of hybridisation.
The elements that are involved in the technical variation in terms of expression profiling, are indefinite, which is why in the performed research, technical variations that are present within the sample, would be processed further through statistical means. This indicates towards the differential expression, if there is any. By conducting the procedure in a parallel manner, it would contribute in using the identical equipment of hybridisation oven, washing station, and scanner, and would be used as a sample in this study. In different studies, limited cell numbers are present when it comes to gene profiling.
Applying the isothermal amplification would contribute in the condition of a small number of cells. This could start at a low range of 5ng total RNA and then can be utilised further, in terms of wide range of experiments. For this quantity of RNA, it can be isolated from different range of cells, with respect to many cell types. The gene expression microarray has been conducted on the Affymetrix GeneChip, which is based on the RNA extracted from the sample of brown adipose tissue. The research then utilises the R programming for the analysis procedure. The Affymetrix helps in generating the cDNA being as an amplified product. The cDNA hybridisation towards the microarrays contributes in generating more details and information regarding differential expression (Dalma-Weiszhausz et al., 2006).
For analysing the gene expression profiling that has been carried out in this study, it requires a course of procedures in order to indicate the pathway of the gene that has been highly expressed in the discussed-microarray. This would be performed by using the R program and further involves the Principal Competent Analysis (PCA) that would be used in the computation and visualisation procedures in the same program. The methodology would also require the clustering processing in the R program, with the addition of heat map and the volcano plot.
- Static Type in R Programming
The performed research would involve the static type in R programming. In this context, it is necessary to check appropriately for the types that have been utilised. This is because; passing a wrong type in the used function would fail. By having, a ‘type system’ in the applied programming language is significant in terms of critical numerical computations. R language is a bit weekly typed programming language, or relatively to Python, Perl, or MatLab/Octave is dynamically typed similarity, as most of the R users exclude in order to place type checks in terms of their functions (Ojha et al., 2013).
If there were a function in the R program, which could take the argument of a matrix, a vector, and a function name, for instance, it would apply the named function towards every column of the matrix that has been listed in the presented vector. If the named function would be returning a single number, then the function would be returning a vector of numbers. For every argument in the function, the ‘if-statements’ can be placed. Now, the major issue that lies in this regard is that this technique would be a bit verbose and based on the gene expression profiling process, there would be a repeating pattern.
This indicates the copy and paste scenario that could be used for the code many times, because of the repeating pattern present, in terms of the arguments mention for different functions and arguments. This would not look good, with respect to the appearance of the coding environment, but would also waste the time for the methodology of the conducted research. However, the R programming does comprise of a mechanism that could contribute in addressing this part, the S-4 class system. This class system requires set of arguments, which are attained by rewriting the function that utilises the S4 class system. This would contribute in the type checking for passing the object only once.
- Clustering Gene Expression in R Programming with PCA
Clustering in gene expression has been a very useful technique when it comes to examining the data of gene expression. The course of clustering helps in finding the patterns, which are found in the data and remains unnoticed by the users. The study simply aims towards the gene expression profiling to be investigated according to the extraction and analysis made in the oligonucletide microarray of the Affymetrix GeneChip. This helps the study in not only contributing towards finding the patterns in the data that the researcher does not know existed, but also helps in indicating the outliers, inadequately annotated samples, and other problems that might be present in the entered data (Simpson, 2012).
Clustering involves different types, such as the hierarchical clustering including the binary tree grouping samples, and the K means, which involves the data to be properly organised into the K clusters. There are different computational techniques that are used for the process of clustering data, in terms of not being restricted to the gene expression data, but the clustering approach as a general technique. Different methods are involved in not only the R programming, but in MatLab as well and such related analysis software. The basic concept is to simply cluster the entered data and then visualise those clusters.
The hierarchical clustering only identifies that which samples are having a greater similarity to each other. Samples that are placed in different trees could be partially associated with one another, but that particular information is misplaced within the binary tree. For PCA analysis to be performed on the R program, the gene expression matrix needs to be saved first in the tab-delimited text file. This includes one exception; the value that is present in the very first row should be deleted. This is associated with other commands to be executed in an adequate manner.
There should be no spaces left between the names of the sample, otherwise, it could turn into a troubling effect while reading the file. Genes that comprise of low expression should be removed and the data should be log transformed prior to the process of saving the file. The current directory should be changed to the directory that contains the file after opening R. The data analysis procedure relates the clustering, heat map and volcano plotting processes in working on a similar track for identifying the highly expressed gene while visualising the microarray at every step.
R analyses the microarray dataset and then produces the heat map of the genes. Having the topographical colours installed in the system would contribute in resulting automatically scaling the heat map with colours for each row. The distances in a heat map are visualised as it reflects the values of the gene expression for different conditions. For the study that has been carried out, it would focus on the pathway of that gene, which has been highly expressed in the microarrays.
The scatter plot is for examining the datasets of the microarray in order to provide with an overview of the highly expressed gene. The log fold change is the aspect plotted on the x-axis and the negative log 10 p-value would be plotted on the y-axis. The volcano plot function would be utilised in order to generate the volcano plot in R for the microarray data. The R environment also contributes in identifying the genes that are present above particular cut-offs (Gillespie, 2011).
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Dalma-Weiszhausz, D., Warrington, J., Tanimoto, E. & Miyada, C., 2006. The affymetrix GeneChip platform: an overview. Methods Enzymol. , pp.3-28.
Gillespie, C., 2011. Volcano plots of microarray data. The Bioinformatics Knowledgeblog, 21 June.
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Ojha, S. et al., 2013. Brown adipose tissue genes in pericardial adipose tissue of newborn sheep are downregulated by maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation. Pediatr Res. , 74(3), pp.246-51.
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Writing a CV is definitely not a rocket science or academic task for which you can hire any academic writing services, but your CV is an essential key and very helpful for getting a new job. There are no specific rules and regulations for writing an ideal resume. Try to watch curriculum vitae samples online that are similar to your field.
Every CV describe a personality with different traits, skills, services, professional and personal details, so we can say that every curriculum vitae is a way how you how you market yourself, you do not need to buy some extra skills for this reason, just be yourself.
Also It is like you are a product and your curricular vitae best describes your specifications and constraints. Be a hiring manager and judge your CV, why you should be hired. To be in the game you should have to update your curriculum vitae continuously. To write an extra ordinary resume just keep in mind the following things.
Investing in your CV can pay dividends for number of years to come and make it easy for you to get a dream job. The professional CV writing service can give you a resume that can blow the competition away and make your curriculum vitae stand out from the crowd. Curriculum vitae from professionals can do wonders to your job prospects.
If you cannot afford to take professional help on your CV, you can write your own CV by following these tips.
Personal and Contact Information
When writing a CV, your major emphasis should be on contact information and skills. Clearly mention the contact information after the personal information. Employers don’t have time to find out the contact information and will reject your curriculum vitae just because you have not mentioned your contact information clearly at the start. Small things like this matter the most to employers and this can make a big difference for you.
Set Yourself Apart
The best way is to stand out from hundreds of candidates and get one step closer to getting your dream job while revealing the qualities and skills that differentiate you from others. Employers look for qualities that can benefit their company to go to the top. How can you resolve the problem they have?
You could get away from mistakes in school and college but now you are stepping into your professional life. The margin for errors does not exist at this level. Be very careful when writing your CV because you can do nothing when your resume reaches the employer. First, identify the errors and correct them before sending your CV to the employer.
Keep It Short
Employer does not have time to read your long resume. He will directly throw it in the bin. Keep your CV as short as possible. The length of your curriculum vitae should not exceed two A4 size pages. Include summaries of your education and work experience. Use simple language and avoid abbreviations.
Though it is an old maxim that ‘Customer is God’, I remember before my professional career it was the point of discussion between me and my big brother who was in business management team at a firm that provides coursework writing service. Delivering excellent customer service is one of the ways to retain existing customers by forming relationship with customer to fulfill their expectations and have comfort level with the organization. There are numbers of quotes from Leaders of business world that identify significance of customer services, have a quick look on them.
Henry Ford as father of Ford motor describes the significance of customer by saying employees are not paid salary from management, role of company is to handover the money that is actually received from customers as the result of successful delivery of services.
Jeff Bezos is CEO of Amazon.com highlighted the power of customers as promoter of words of mouth; he provided that boiling customer experience is the winning or losing situation for the company. If successfully executed, customers will share positive words with others and vice versa.
A great Research and understanding on customer services enabled me to provide some quick tips such as
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I have realized that many students hate to be involved in academic writing tasks and get involved in seeking best paper writing service to manage these writings for them. These students do not realize the importance of academic writings and lose the chance to avail rational thinking and decision-making abilities. For this reason, one must need to realize that academic writing is the need to grow your educational standards.
Important Feature of Academic Writing
Academic paper writing is not only a task that is needed to perform to fulfill the lecturer’s requirements. It is the skill building exercise through which one could get the following most important features.
Academic writing is the most difficult and the boring thing to do but it provides the students to grow their writing skills, intellectual capacity, time management ability, and research making work and abilities. In this activity, student undergoes through research, brainstorms, and maintains quality and errorless words or sentences.
How Do Educational Standard Grow?
Academic paper writing is assigned by the lecturers to evaluate students. The evaluation is very important for the students, as marks are added in student’s final grades. Educational standards have the rise through these assignments, as they are marked by lecturers/professors that are loyal and sincere to their work and their marking is much fair and strict according to rules. For marking the assignments and making high standard of education, they face challenges that are as follows:
By making these kinds of rules in the education system, its standards got the rise. This is the reason why, many academic staff members turn towards the group of online academic writing and they are managing their work through providing assignment writing help. This is the reason these difficult and mind storming are done by the help of professional writers UK.
Book report writing is not an easy task to perform and number of key components students forget to add while compiling review, for which guidance from professional writers can solve their issues efficiently. For this purpose, they ultimately switch towards the best book report writing service as last option. The presented checklist can help students to see what they have done and identify the mistake they performed while writing book report:
I am an academic writer, Students can now get their any kind of academic papers help by me providing the guarantee of original content with unlimited number of revision as per requirement.